Sunday, May 24, 2020

Essay on Classical Liberal Theory - 1055 Words

Classical Liberal Theory Classical liberalism is a very interesting political theory. The underlying belief is that what makes a person human is freedom from the dependence on the will of others. It is complete freedom from any relations with others, except those entered voluntarily. Another main point of classical liberalism is that the individual is the owner of his person and his capacities, for which he owes nothing to society. The individual, although free, has no power to limit anyone elses freedom. Classical liberalism includes the following: an ethical emphasis on the individual as a rights-bearer prior to the existence of any state, community, or society, the support of the right of property carried to its economic†¦show more content†¦Equality leads to isolation of individuals. This is just what despotism requires. Equality places men side by side, unconnected by any common tie; despotism raises barriers to keep them asunder; the former predisposes them not to consider their fellow-creatur es, the latter makes general indifference a sort of public virtue. (Vol2, Book2, Chap4) As Tocqueville wrote, No sooner does a government attempt to go beyond its political sphere and to enter upon this new track, than it exercises, even unintentionally, an insupportable tyranny; for a government can only dictate strict rules, the opinions which it favors are rigidly enforced, and it is never easy to discriminate between its advice and its commands.(Vol2,book2,chap5) The principles which despotism produces are precisely those which equality fosters. These two things mutually complete and assist each other. Equality places men side by side, unconnected by any common tie; despotism raises barriers to keep them this way. Equality predisposes them not to consider their fellow-creatures, and despotism makes general indifference as far as society is concerned. The best way citizens can protect themselves from a despotic overthrow is to be aware of what is going on around them. They must not become so caught up in their individualism that they lose site of their neighbors. Tocqueville stated that it is getting involved in local affairs that bringShow MoreRelatedTo What Extent Does Modern Liberalism Depart from Classical Liberalism1624 Words   |  7 PagesThe classical liberal ideology emerged as a result of the Enlightenment period, which brought about new philosophies, challenging the existing assumptions about the nature of humankind and society. Modern liberalism developed around 1870 as a result of both philosophical and practical changes, including mass industrialisation. Classical liberals argue that modern liberalism has broken the principles of doctrines central to liberal thought whilst modern liberals claim that they are simply adaptingRead MoreThe Classical Liberalism Theory1016 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction The Classical liberalism theory mainly emphasis is sited on shielding the freedom of the individual by restricting the power of the government. Classical liberalism is a wide philosophy of politics, economics, and human society that upholds individual freedom and the acknowledgement of universal human dignity. The most important features of The classical liberalism theory is consist of the following beliefs: All human beings have intrinsic dignity and worth, all individuals have intrinsicRead MoreHow Liberism has Evolved During the 20th Century980 Words   |  4 Pagesdominated political ideas for almost two decades since the 1970s but the liberal demand of limiting powers of the state has made it seem more radical. In the mid 19th century, Alexis de Tocqueville a historian warned of the dangers of extreme individualism. In this essay, I shall begin by explaining the types of liberalism and close on how they have all changed over the course of the 20th century. CLASSICAL LIBERALISM Classical liberalism is a political ideology that advocates the freedom of individualsRead MoreThe View of Human Nature and the Role of the State758 Words   |  4 Pageseveryone. However the problem lies in the fact that no two humans are the same therefore reaching a unanimous decision on what human nature is, is near enough impossible. Over the years three ideologies have emerged as the leading theories on human nature; conservatism, classical liberalism and Marxism. The three have their own differing views on what the basis of human nature is. These ideologies have evolved into political parties and their policies are largely influenced by their views on human natureRead MoreTo What Extent Has Modern Liberalism Departed from the Ideas of Classical Liberalism?682 Words   |  3 Pagesdeparted from the ideas of classical liberalism? The further development of industrialisation led to social and economic inequality. This led to a revision of classical liberal ideas to prevent the spread of ignorance and poverty. It is suggested that modern liberals have betrayed classical liberal ideas as they embrace collectivism and diverge from classical liberalism on issues such as freedom. However, it can be argued that modern liberals have simply built on classical liberal ideas such as its commitmentRead MoreSimilarities Between Classical and Modern Liberals Are Greater Than the Differences. Discuss1729 Words   |  7 PagesSimilarities between classical and modern liberalism are greater than the differences. Discuss. (45 marks) Typically, liberalism is categorised into two separate components; classical liberalism, which was fashioned during the 19th century as a result of the industrial revolution, and the more recent Modern Liberalism which emerged as industrialisation continued within the UK. Although both divisions of Liberalism unavoidably overlap in attitudes and approaches regarding the theory behind the ideologyRead MoreThe Similarities Between Classical and Modern Liberalism Are Greater Than the Differences1725 Words   |  7 PagesSimilarities between classical and modern liberalism are greater than the differences. Discuss. (45 marks) Typically, liberalism is categorised into two separate components; classical liberalism, which was fashioned during the 19th century as a result of the industrial revolution, and the more recent Modern Liberalism which emerged as industrialisation continued within the UK. Although both divisions of Liberalism unavoidably overlap in attitudes and approaches regarding the theory behind the ideologyRead MoreThe Five International Relations Theories, Realism, Liberalism, And Feminism1241 Words   |  5 Pagesfive international relations theories, Realism, Liberalism, and Feminism have very interesting and different positions pertaining to global politics and issues. These theories, although quite different, effect the past present and future of global politics. Realists tend to believe the worst in humanity, that they are inherently selfish, and expect the worst. They are always prepared for war, and will go on the offensive if it means gaining more power and respect. Liberals do not th ink people are inherentlyRead MoreInternational Relation Theories of Realism and Liberalism Essay534 Words   |  3 PagesRealism and liberalism ‎ International relations theories are the study of international relations from a ‎theoretical perspective. Such as, realism, liberalism, maximise, socialism ‎ This assignment will be discussed about two theories of international relations ‎which are Realism the most important in international relations. Liberalism is the ‎second theory will be considered. The aim of this essay to compare between these ‎two theories. ‎ Firstly, in the first paragraphs in this assignmentRead MoreEssay on Negative and Positive Freedom878 Words   |  4 PagesNegative freedom, which is traditionally associated with Classical Liberalism, advocates the belief in non-interference, the absence of all external constraints upon the individual. This implies that individuals should be free to pursue their own interests free from outside restrictions or pressures. Nonetheless, negative freedom does not mean that individuals should have absolute and unrestricted freedom. Classical liberals, such as J.S. Mill, believe that if freedom is unlimited

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Love over Friendship - 862 Words

A pleasant morning/afternoon to each and every one. Today, I will discuss a certain topic to you. And all I need is you to listen. Is that okay? Alright. Let’s start. Friendship Over Love *Is this phrase, hits you? If not, maybe you haven’t experienced it yet. But if yes, how did you overcome with this? Did you choose between the two? Or you just did something to let them stay in your life? Okay. *First slide ppt* *All of us had friends, right? Best friends, close friends, barkada, tropa or whatever name we call our friends. Friendship is a certain bond between two or more people. Like acquaintances. It is the word that describes your relationship with your friend. The trials and experiences you had and the moments you chose to†¦show more content†¦*Second, same situation but you have realized something; something that turned you out to choose your friends over you boyfriend/girlfriend. And that you realized your friendship is more valuable than the relationship that you have with your boyfriend/girlfriend. *But choosing between them, almost half of your heart will be broken. Why?! And that’s because they have been a great part in your life, am I right? Of course I am. *But why do you need to choose? If you can let them both stay in your life, right? You only need to find a balance between the two, so your relationships (with your friends and with your boyfriend/girlfriend) won’t suffer. Don’t spend all of your time with your friends or to your boyfriend/girlfriend, you need to be fair with them so that no conflict or sufferings will occur. Find the time to go out with your buddies and the time to do something with your boy/girl so everybody is pleased. Remember, balance is the key to all long and healthy relationships. *last slide ppt* *That would be all, thank you for listening! And by the way, if you are wondering who I am, I am Florence V. Galleto, grade 10 student from St. Mark class. Once again, thank you very much, and have a greatShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Emily Brontes Love And Friendship737 Words   |  3 PagesWill the darkness  overtake  us  as  the sun stops shining on our lives? The sun  shining  on us flu ctuates over the seasons as our relationships vary over time. These relationships  are established throughout our lives, but which of these will flourish even in the dark  instants.  In  her poem Love and  Friendship  Emily  Bronte queries the preceding statements, by speaking about its flourishing and deadness at  certain  moments. She does this with the utilization of  naturistic  imagery  and  figurative languageRead MoreThe Theme of Friendship in John Steinbecks Of Mice and Men659 Words   |  3 Pagesfriends named Lennie and George. George promises Aunt Clara that he will watch over Lennie because of his mental disability. Their friendship is tested many times as Lennie is constantly finding himself in trouble. John Steinbeck uses feelings of happiness, obligation, and love to establish the theme of friendship is the most important thing in life. First, Steinbeck uses the feeling of happiness to show that friendship is the most important thing in life. Happiness keeps George and Lennies relationshipRead MoreFriendship, Love, And Love1401 Words   |  6 PagesFriendship and romantic love are two of the most fundamental relationships that human beings engage in. As social animals, most humans are naturally drawn to form bonds of affection with other people. Both friendship and love, however, are difficult to fully define and conceptualize. The fundamental meaning of each has changed throughout the course of human history and appears in different forms among different cultures. Modern interpretations of friendship and love will guide this explication, asRead More Ciceros De Amicitia Essays1263 Words   |  6 Pagesunique perspective to the topic of friendship and how it relates to death. The word amicitia comes from the Latin root word amor which is translated to mean â€Å"love†. In this day and age the word friendship has taken on a slightly different meaning from the ancient meaning. Cicero’ s De Amicitia seeks to define what friendship is, its characteristics and principles. He has challenged us to reconsider what constitutes a true friend. Upon observing a typical friendship it becomes clear to us that thisRead MoreAnalysis of Ciceros Laelius de Amicitia1267 Words   |  6 Pagesunique perspective to the topic of friendship and how it relates to death. The word amicitia comes from the Latin root word amor which is translated to mean love. In this day and age the word friendship has taken on a slightly different meaning from the ancient meaning. Cicero s De Amicitia seeks to define what friendship is, its characteristics and principles. He has challenged us to reconsider what constitutes a true friend. Upon observing a typical friendship it becomes clear to us that thisRead MoreEssay When Souls Intertwine1641 Words   |  7 PagesVirtuous friends are your true friends. What is true friendship? How do you know when someone is not only your friend, but your true friend? Some may say that a true friend is loyal, honest, and cares for you, someone who would die for you. Some may agree with Aristotles view of friendship. He classifies friendship into three categories: friendship for utility, pleasure, or virtue. Aristotle says a virtuous friendship is when you wish good things for the other person.Read MoreFriendship By William Shakespeare s The Merchant Of Venice1727 Words   |  7 PagesFriendship is an idea which spans all cultures, but is expressed differently across cultural boundaries. In William Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, the idea of friendship is critical, not only to the plot, but also for character development. A friend is, â€Å"A person with whom one has developed a close and informal relationship of mutual trust and intimacy; (more generally) a close acquaintance. Often with adjective indicating the closeness of the relationship, asbest, good, close, etc.†(OxfordRead MoreTheories of Love and Friendship Essay1088 Words   |  5 PagesRelationships and friendships have evolved significantly over the centuries. Quality of life was influenced by accepted practices related to theories of love and friendship. Exploring Medieval Europe and modern day approaches to relationships provide a clear illustration of how relationships have positively evolved over time. Theories of love and friendship have emerged from the early medieval period over 2000 years ago with notable theories from Plato and Aristotle. Plato (428-348 or 347Read MoreThe Ethics Of The Nicomachean Ethics1356 Words   |  6 Pages is friendship. He debates that friendship is complete virtue and above justice and morality in which is why it should be so highly valued. His interpretation of friendship is abundantly deeper than one simple type or definition. Aristotle believes that there are three different kinds of friendship; that of utility, a pleasurable friendship, and a friendship of virtue. A friendship of utility is based on those who are useful to one another which is the only sole purpose for their friendship. TheyRead MoreFriendship Idiom1516 Words   |  7 PagesFriendship â€Å"A true friend is someone who thinks that you are a good egg even though he knows that you are slightly cracked.† –Bernard Meltzer A friend is one who knows us, but loves us anyway. – Fr. Jerome Cumnings Remember, the greatest gift is not found in a store nor under a tree, but in the hearts of true friends. –Cindy Lee Who finds a faithful friends, finds a treasure. – Jewish Saying â€Å"Your friend is the man who knows all about you, and still likes you† –Elbert Hubbard What is a friend

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Effective Methods to Learn New Vocabulary Free Essays

Shiyu Wang EDI 300 Dr. Pole 09/26/2011 The Effective Methods To Learn New Vocabulary Vocabulary is one of the three main elements of language, and it is the base of literature. Whatever people communicate with others by any language, and the first requirement is that people must have certain vocabulary. We will write a custom essay sample on The Effective Methods to Learn New Vocabulary or any similar topic only for you Order Now In study activities, teachers emphasize listening, speaking, reading, and writing, but students cannot learn without vocabulary. Vocabulary learning is a process of memorizing and recognizing. If students don’t have enough vocabulary, they will spend more time to read, and they are not interested in the books they read. Learning language base is very important in English teaching, and learning language base includes knowledge and skill. For accumulating vocabulary knowledge, and pointing to the difficulties to students, some researchers provide some methods below to develop the learning qualities. In the beginning, vocabulary learning includes two sides, and they are accumulating and understanding. The purpose of learning vocabulary is letting students handle every word, so the best method of learning vocabulary is by reading. If they handle the sentences, they will remember the words. One disadvantage of learning by rote is that all words are in alphabetical order, and student cannot be interested in those words because of no connection with their life. This will be a very passive activity, but memorizing is active. For example, people might remember name of the person they want to make friend with. That is not because you repeat it, but also you are memory activator. The other disadvantage is that even though people remember the meanings of the words, they cannot use them to write articles. In different language environment, one word has different meanings. So, using sentence frame to develop vocabulary is a better method. If you read a sentence every day, the value will be more than that people recite twenty words. Dr. Kesler â€Å"prompted students to continue using the textual information to consider the word’s meaning. After reading, we revisited the words in context and how often they appeared in the text. The students then refined and generated new possible sentences that we discussed based on new textual information. (Ted 2) Reading is good, but the sentences should be found in our favorite articles. Firstly, people must love that sentence, because understanding is the basic of using. For instance, when I read Mark Twain, one sentence is written like that â€Å"†¦constantly worries about money as her family teetered between near-prosperity and genteel poverty. † This sentence describes the family economic situation exactly. Because I love this sentence, I immediately remember the word â€Å"teeter†. Then, American sociologist, Dr. Hymes stated that only studying one language is not enough, students must have the ability of communicating by the language. They must understand how to use suitable methods to express the true purpose, and this expression method depends on the social cultural background. The cultural background is abundant. Generally, learning vocabulary has the firm connection with learning cultural background. Therefore, during the studying process, we might meet many words related to culture, when we learn these words, we should know the culture around the words. For that reason, they are not separated. I am an international student in the USA, so I live in a totally different culture environment, so the same meaning word has different meaning and usage in different culture environment. For example, in American people mind, â€Å"week† is from Sunday to Saturday, but in Chinese culture, â€Å"week† is from Monday to Sunday. At the same time, in different culture background, every word have abundant cultural connotation except denotation. Therefore, people should communicate with others by mixing language and culture. On the other side, good culture knowledge can not lead people communicate with others. Reading a lot of newspaper, books, and movies can let students understand the suitable environment, and they can know the true meaning of the vocabulary, so they will have the ability to communicate with other people, and get the purpose of using the new words. Using new pictures to learn and review Next, teachers should develop the interests of learning words. For changing the boring learning methods, they must use several different teaching ways to let students are interested in new vocabulary by themselves. Firstly, teachers can use new pictures to learn and review, so they can use several pictures to lead students to learn. For example, they can create many kinds of picture cards to learn fruit and vegetable words. Those cards will catch children’s attention, and this will be the best time to remember vocabulary. Secondly, teachers can use real things. Students don’t like boring lecture, but several real things are close to the reality life, so they can see and touch the objects, so they will develop their study interests, then teachers can teach new words with letting students look at the real objects. Thirdly, teachers can let students to sing songs. If teachers can compose the songs by the new words, they can let students sing with performance, and it will build a relaxing study environment. Fourthly, playing games is also a good method to let students have study interests, and it can change the boring language situation to be an interesting course structure that students can accept. Fifthly, teachers can use some simple drawing. When they draw the pictures, they will remember the words effectively. In Janet Towell’s E-journal named Fun with vocabulary, she also introduce many other interesting ways to learn vocabulary, like color shock. It â€Å"is a technique that was originally designed for right-brained, learning disabled students to help them remember sight words. Right-brained children seem to have a special sensitivity for bright colors. † (Janet 356) This way is using different colors with different letters, so it will be a best way to learn words. The other way she Word cross game show readers is onsets and rimes, and â€Å" this technique for developing phonemic awareness can help beginning readers quickly and effectively learn many sight words using word patterns. (Janet 356) Those methods are all good for students to learn new vocabulary. Last but not least, technology will be another effective methods to learn new vocabulary. Using new technology can imitate several situations, and in teaching process. Firstly, powerpoint can be used independently without other software. Powerpoint can link to video, flash, picture, and other audio records, and teachers can show the course content by several medi a. Powerpoint is very active, and it cannot only catch students’ attention, but also help student remember words well. Secondly, study is a process of structure knowledge and studying actively. Therefore, teachers should let students think continuously, and get knowledge by thinking. By looking flash, students will find that words can have their living power because changing can develop memory. Thirdly, teachers try their best to using the Internet resource. On the Internet, students can read some materials that are related to the content they need to learn. They will understand the textbooks deeply, and at the same time, they will develop their reading ability. Dr. Dalton thinks that â€Å"teachers can create a digital version of a vocabulary field trip using a free program called TrackStar. It allows you to collect a series of websites and annotate them so that students follow the online journal. † (Bridget 4) They also can use advantage of online word reference tools as teaching tools, for example, â€Å"the visual thesaurus website complement its freebased content with free information such as the Behind the Dictionary and Teachers at work. † (Bridget 4) Additionally, students can exchange their thoughts with other students on the Internet. In conclusion, Emily Dickinson writes a poem called A Word that â€Å" A word is dead When it is said, Some say, I say it just Begins to live That day. † So, learning new vocabulary can be very interesting, and there are many different effective methods to remember words. Fluent language cannot exist without huge vocabulary accumulating, so enjoying vocabulary is the basic of learning language well. Without vocabulary, reading, translating, and writing cannot continue. Language learning develops by practicing and repeating, so teachers must keep students’ passion. Interest is the best teacher. The effective method to make vocabulary learning active is a necessary way teachers must research. Works Cited The Reading Teacher. Newark, Del. , etc: International Reading Association, 1989. Internet resource. Reading Teacher. Newark, Del: International Reading Association, 1900. Internet resource. â€Å"Games. † Photograph. Webshots. 2011. Web. 2 Dec. 2011. ;http://vocabulary. net/games/; â€Å"Basic Vocabulary Skills Cards. † Photograph. Webshots. 22 August. 2011. Web. 2 Dec. 2011. ;http://www. ssww. com/item/basic-vocabulary-skills-cards-LR1184/; How to cite The Effective Methods to Learn New Vocabulary, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Process Of Decision Making and Challenge †

Question: Discuss about the Process Of Decision Making. Answer: Introduction The management of the company is faced with a challenging task of taking decisions. Therefore, it is imperative that the management must have strong skills and mechanism that will aid in the process of decision making. In this assignment, the major emphasis is on the usage of techniques such as scenario, sensitivity, break-even and simulation. The assignment even sheds light on the manner the decision making is impacted by the use of such techniques. Mainly it stresses on the capital budgeting technique. Sensitivity Analysis Force and difficulty are the two key factors under which a business functioning takes place. Time has passed on and with that, the market has seen a significant change in the key factors of business functioning. Internal and external factors both are equally essential for the business functioning. Internal policies, management, etc are the forms in which internal factors exist. Whereas, the framing of new policies, changes in demand pattern, etc are the forms of external factors. It is impossible to control the external factors and as a result, the profit of the company gets affected. Thus, to avoid and eliminate such situations, the company can follow an efficient process that proves to be a boon in assessing the sensitivity of the sales, cost and the alterations in the income pattern. This method is termed as a sensitivity analysis. It is an analyzing process which helps to view the changes in the variables, and also it is a scientific method to see the practicability of the partic ular project. The unfavorable changes and alteration are the ones that are taken into utter consideration under this process and are treated so as for be known as the prosperity of the venture. Sensitivity analysis forms a major part of the Capital Budgeting (Peirson et. al, 2015). It increases the visibility factor against the key variables that affect the cost and venture assistance. This process helps to trace cost pertained operations in these stages. It gives a firm view of the changes and also depicts whether the changes would be favorable for the company or not. Sensitivity Analysis in Capital Budgeting A boon that exists to provide the company a clear view of the changes and, whether those will be favorable for the cash flow and the venture assistance or not is generally known as Sensitivity analysis. The main target of the sensitivity analysis is not the evaluation of risks. The receptiveness of the NVP is the main matter of concern in a sensitivity analysis, much more than risk evaluation. It proves to be a boon for the particular manager so as to decide the perfect strategy as per the situations and essential reasoning on the other hand which helps to explain the fact that under which circumstances, the venture stood up as a successful plan. Alterable assumption or estimation of a project is covered by this method in capital budgeting (Brealey et. al, 2015). Number of selling units, project completion time, cost of capital and many more factors are to be paid attention whenever a capital budgeting decision is being taken. In these cases, it is necessary that the assumptions being considered are well stated and valid. The success of the sensitivity analysis is made in terms of the result attained to the assumption made at the initial stages of the venture (Petty et. al, 2012). Sensitivity analysis alters some assumptions while keeping others stable and ascertains the alteration in NVP or IRR. Scenario Analysis Scenario analysis can be defined as a process that helps in evaluating a specific project by taking into consideration various assumptions and factors. Specifically, scenario analysis can be stated as a mechanism that helps in evaluating a project by knowing different situation or scenarios. Through scenario analysis, it is easy for the management of the company to assess every alternate outcome of any project that comes in the way. It is famous for ascertaining the scenario that is worst and helps in predicting the losses and other issues that emerge in the operations (Da, 2012). The process can be a strong guide to know about the fall in sales and lays a strong foundation when it comes to the process of capital budgeting. In short, this method can be used in terms of evaluation. An apt example of this mechanism is when the manager creates a budget but is not certain of the revenues or the income. The part of scenario analysis comes to the forefront and enables the manager to know t he income possibility and then application of probability analysis is done. In this scenario, the worst and the best case scenario can be segregated. The best case for the manager will be where the company will fetch a gross income of $1, 50,000 and the cost of goods sold stands at $50,000 hence a gross profit of $1,00,000 can be derived. Secondly, the worst scenario for the manager will be when the gross income will be $70,000 and the cost of goods sold stands at $30,000. Here, a gross profit of $40,000 can be recorded. The scenario analysis is a perfect tool in this condition. As per Correia et. al (2015) when a project is initiated it is vital that the scenario of the project must be studied in an effective manner. When it comes to an investment opportunity then the company must undertake a scenario analysis by tracing the IRR and the NPV by considering various rates of cost of capital. At the same instance, the management can even conduct scenario analysis by tracing the IRR and NPV at different levels. When scenario analysis is done through capital budgeting mechanism it enables the management to conduct a real time analysis of the project that helps in taking a fast decision (Parrino et. al, 2012). Break even analysis A very important method known as the break even analysis is used under situations when multiple questions or queries arise in association with the profitability gained due to the product and services of the company. Its use can be linked either with a product or a service. This particular method can be used to answer questions relating to the minimum sales that the company must have so as to help the company survive without any losses on its part and also to lessen the sales of some products while keeping the profits stable (Damodaran, 2012). Break even analysis answers to all the questions in relation to a new project like profit assumption, whether it will have a positive curve or a negative one. Break even analysis is important to the manager so as to see that the maintained stock of product or products will adhere to their profitability and volume or not. This method is used whenever a company wants to set up a breakeven point so as to show the net income as zero and in order to do so, the company has to ensure whether their stock is in association with the cost of the company and this can be done by the break even analysis. It provides a healthy understanding in the terms of variable and fixed cost. The validity of the project is determined by capital budgeting but break even depicts the profit making percentage of the project undertaken (Graham smart, 2012). It is required to set up firm and targeted break even analysis on a new project while deciding itsfinances so as to get a vision of the project in the future which states its efficiency and successfulness. The manager should be familiar with the break even analysis so as to decide accurate strategy and take the perfe ct decisions. The forum for the break even stands: BEQ FC / (P-VC) Where BEQ = Break-even quantity FC = Total fixed costs P = Average price per unit, and VC = Variable costs per unit. (Pratt: 2016) Simulation In order to have a view to the risky functions, pre determination of the probability distribution and the random numbers is made and all this is done on the basis of simulation. Usage of the mechanism of the cash flow is done in a very mathematical way with several repetitions to undertake the process (James, 2010). All this is performed by the manager of the venture. Increase in the probability distribution can be seen as a resource of this undertaken process which is predictable. This process is a boon for the manager as he gets a clear value of the probability distribution for cash inflow and the generated random numbers so as to assign values to different variables. When such values are taken into account and recorded then it results in NVP (Abor, 2017). The probability distribution of the net current value is easy to be calculated if the same above process is repeated countless times by the manager of the venture. As per James (2010), an analysis of the cash flow is hard and if it is discounted then it is very difficult to get hands on it. This stress is easily solved by the process of simulation as it a powerful spreadsheet which helps the manager in these risk evaluation activities. All the future circumstances regarding the project are easily visional with simulation as it provides a clear view of the alteration of the variables in the future. It also possesses solutions for those loopholes which are prominent in sensitivity analysis and this makes simulation better than sensitivity analysis. Simulation fails to set an example and arrive at any particular decision which is practical in nature and ends with real life. This is because the simulation is a method which follows a series of mathematical calculations of variables whose values taken into account are the one as per the records of the previous years and the values keep on changing with time. The use of simulation made by the managers is done in a multiple numbers of steps. Important values and their assessment are all done by the simulation process followed by the manager, all this comes under the topic of modeling and this includes a whole lot of mathematical functioning (Abor, 2017). A defined particular probability value always exists for all the important variables that exist either individually or as a base joined with any previously observed data. Also, it is obvious that the utilization of computer has made the process of simulation easier. The result of the calculations made by simulation is of great significance to the managers as its gives a thorough knowledge about future aspects and helps in decision making and also to evaluate the risk that follows instead of a defined tip assumption. Thus, it can be said that a practical view is provided by simulation to the managers to know the selectivity of the venture (Petters Dong, 2016). The most important plus point of the simulation is that it provides in numerable venture estimates. For instance, a selected project of 99% positivity and IRR more than the cost of capital can always prove to be a very fruitful project as the project ensures high return with very minimal chances of failing. But on the other hand, it is also to be seen that massive project with beneficial return has much more risks (Guerard, 2013). Thus, it is prominent that no NVP can touch the 100% mark as the ventures that earn the cost of capital are risky also. Thus, the process of simulation can be helpful to the managers to view and highlight the inventors predisposition in respect to the particular venture. Conclusion From the above study, it is clear that the management of the company can use a variety of methods for ascertaining a project. It is upon the management to use the method as per their suitability and determine whether a particular project must be selected or not. The feasibility of the project can be known with the aid of capital budgeting mechanisms like IRR and NPV. The study indicates that the utilization of the method is as per the demand of the situation and as per the need. However, the presence of various method is a benefit to the management while making crucial decisions. References Abor, J.Y 2017, Evaluating Capital Investment Decisions: Capital Budgeting. InEntrepreneurialFinance for MSMEs, Springer International Publishing. Brealey, R. A, Myers, S. A Marcus, A. J., 2015, Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 8th ed, Australia: McGraw-Hill Irwin. Correia, C, Mayall, P, O'Grady, B Pang, J., 2005, Corporate Financial Management, 2nd ed. Perth: Skystone Investments Pty Ltd. Da, Z, Guo, R.J. Jagannathan, R 2012, CAPM for estimating the cost of equity capital: Interpreting the empirical evidence, Journal of Financial Economics vol. 103, pp. 204220 Damodaran, A 2012, Investment Valuation, New York: John Wiley Sons. Graham, J Smart, S 2012, Introduction to corporate finance, Australia: South-Western Cengage Learning. Guerard, J. 2013,Introduction to financial forecasting in investment analysis, New York, NY: Springer. James P. D 2010, Topics in Capital Budgeting, viewed 5 September 2017 Parrino, R, Kidwell, D. Bates, T 2012, Fundamentals of corporate finance, Hoboken Peirson, G, Brown, R., Easton, S., Howard, P Pinder, S 2015, Business Finance, 12th ed., North Ryde: McGraw-Hill Australia. Petters, A.O Dong, X., 2016, Capital Market Theory and Portfolio Risk Measures InAn Introduction to Mathematical Finance with Applications, Springer New York. Petty, J. W, Titman, S., Keown, A. J., Martin, J. D., Burrow, M., and Nguyen, H., 2012, Financial Management: Principles and Applications, 6th ed., Australia: Pearson Education Australia. Prat, R 2016. Five Objections Against Using a Size Premium When Estimating the Required Return of Capital with the Capital Asset Pricing Model. Madimon consulting

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

Body Language free essay sample

This means that the way of hold odd, the way of moving hands and the expression on face all make more of an impact than the words that are coming out of your mouth. Having a good knowledge Of the impact Of body language can help you in a huge range Of situations throughout your life, especially if often are on either side of a buying and selling transaction. Indians are very polite in either verbal or non- verbal communication. This is because they respects the person they are communicating with either in negotiation process or daily communication.Unlike western counties, it is uncommon for Indians to have body contact (hand shaking) as part of communication. Indians greet others and show respect when they first meet or begin a conversation by holding both hands together followed with a slight bow. Indians greeting (Names) In negotiation process, first impression to either competitors or allies are very crucial. We will write a custom essay sample on Body Language or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As Indians tradition to bow and greet others with Names, rather than western culture that shake hands which is consider rude in the eastern countries, Indians manages to show good first impression to others which is very beneficial in the business field.Successful business or large companies would tend to establish business relationship with individuals or companies presenter which shows good first impression. Besides, It is very common for Indians people to nod their head when they are speaking or when they are listening to others speaking. This gesture is known as head bobble or head wobble. According to Cook, an India travel expert, a fast and continuous head bobble indicates that a person is really understands, while a quick bobble from side to side means yes or alright. This gesture is a sign of agreement to the speaker.This is to show that they are interested in the conversation and trying to reply or asking any questions. When someone how interest of what an individual is talking, the individual will encouraged and motivated to continue a conversation. In this situation, any negotiation process will proceed smoothly and end up with a win-win situation result. Negotiation is all about showing interest to other party or individual and to achieve a result which is beneficial to both sides. Head bobble (sign of agreement for Indians) In a negotiation process, Indians usually positioned themselves 3 feet away from the speaker or listener.At a 3 feet or farther distant in either negotiation process or daily communicating, it is not consider rude but it is a sign of wowing respect to others and themselves. In order to succeed in negotiation process, Indians usually shows politeness in every aspect include verbal and non-verbal communication. When negotiating with Eastern countries such as Japan or Korea which also care about politeness in every aspect, the process would end with both parties achieve their objectives and could establish a relationship in business. Besides, the sharing of cultures would also occur in the process.Indians also do not make eye contact directly to the person they are talking or listening to as direct eye Contact is c onsidered rude for the Indians. Indians will avoid having direct eye contact with someone who has higher position than themselves. This avoidance is a signal of giving trust to the speaker or listener of whom they are communicating with. Avoiding direct eye contact by moving the sight lower than the one they are communicating with usually is a sign of showing respect to that person by positioned themselves lower than others.Thus, others will have positive opinion about Indians which would definitely benefits them in negotiation process. People normally will respect others when others respect them. So, when dealing with Indians in estimation process, other party would also show their respect. At the end, this would lead Indians to succeed in negotiation process by just showing respect to other party involved. Palms at 45 degree angle ( sign of honest) Using hand gesture when negotiate is common for Indian. It may be perceived as indifference if they dont use hands at all which called no hand gestures.Audience may feel that speaker dont care about what he is talking about. Negotiate with hidden hand will effect the negotiation as it will be hard to gain opponent trust if they cant see negotiators hand along the propose of estimation. Thus, using hand gesture in negotiation had helping Indian a lot in negotiation process. For example common hand gesture of Indian which is hands open and palms at a 45-degree angle, shows that they are being honest and open. In the process Of searching agreement to solve problem among two parties, trust is main element that must have. Trust between negotiator not only can let the negotiation go smoothly, but also can catch an opponent off guard in negotiation thus come to a satisfied negotiation result. In a negotiation, a poor posture of negotiator likely will be viewed as signaling lack of enthusiasm. Leaning forward may be an expression of interest and eagerness. Moreover, a negotiator allowed to change from feeling powerless to feel powerful with good body language. This is where deception, which is acting confident, becomes reality, which is gaining actual confidence as body language affects the way Indian feel and think about themselves.By acting powerful and confident, they soon feel powerful and confident. In fact, studies have shown that adopting high power poses can decrease cortices and increase testosterone, while low power poses bring about the converse. Most effective leaders have both high testosterone and low cortices, they are less reactive, more confident about taking risks and more likely to make good decisions. So a negotiator can boost his endurance and performance capabilities in difficult and stressful situations by simply changing his body language in the process of negotiation.Body language is to be understood in context. As an expert negotiator, body language recognizing should be included in set Of skills. Spotting a rookie has never been easier. Erratic gestures, voice murmuring excessive sweating, shaking, and even excessive blinking, are clear signs of anxiety. For example, drumming fingers on the table might communicate that he is nervous or impatient. Having arms across opponents chest can signal that he is defensive or uncomfortable. Even at- rest face might say different things to others.If mouth is slightly turned down and forehead is wrinkled, people may think that the person is aggressive, uptight, unhappy and judgmental. Conversely, if mouth slightly curved upwards and forehead is smooth, most people will think that he is friendly, likeable, considerate and smart. Indian use them to his advantage, and make sure theyre not fabricated gestures. An effective negotiator has to be a good listener. This requires more than just processing what is verbally being said. An ability to read body language is essential to following the progress of a negotiation.That is why learning to read body language allows a Indian to make more accurate assessments of his or her counterpart. A reading based on clusters of similar attitudinal gestures are more accurate than quick judgments made based on one isolated action. Possessing an ability to read body language allows the Indian tailor his approach and strategy according to the feedback that get from reading his opponents body language. Non-verbal feedback warn the Indian negotiator that he must change, withdraw or do something different in order to reach his objective.With an ability to read body language, an Indian negotiator able to spot deception. He can do so by evaluating a verbal communication against its corresponding gesture. Body language is often more truthful. People are not always aware that they are communicating non-verbally but their verbal pronouncements can be consciously tweaked to meet their objectives. Thus, Indian negotiator can decrease the percentage of lose or increase the win situation when able to pot deception from opponents body language. The negotiator yields valuable information which was not previously disclosed.Potential issues can be defused quickly even before they snowball into a mess. It is human nature to judge others all the time and to do so quickly. So depending on his body language, an Indian negotiator set himself at an advantage or disadvantage the moment he is glimpsed by his counterpart. Good body language is crucial to securing a good first impression and reputation. Good first impressions carry with them a halo effect. Halo effect means that when people see certain favorable qualities in a person, they assume other favorable qualities in that person.First impressions are durable and are not easily altered once forged. They go on to form your reputation. So good body language not only increases the probability that the counterpart will form a more positive impression of the negotiator but goes towards building the negotiators good reputation. The importance of a good first impression or reputation cannot be underestimated. The first impression or reputation created by the negotiators body language sets the tone for the ensuing relationship with his opponent. Body language determines how well the negotiator will be treated by his counterpart.Studies show that where candidates set a good first impression, interviewers provide them with more information and opportunities, ask less information from them and build more trust with them. This is because people generally go on to engage in behavior that helps make their initial impressions of you come true. So similarly, a negotiator with good body language is able to lay the foundation for a smooth negotiation. Good body language will assist Indian negotiator to gain trust from his counterpart, and the counterpart is more likely to treat IM better and both parties comes to a win- win situation.A negotiator with good body language can also communicate and persuade more effectively. As mentioned above, body language is seven times more meaningful than whatever a person is actually saying. This is why congruence between the verbal and the non-verbal is essential to a negotiator. The listener will be tuning in to your non-verbal, whether consciously or subconsciously, in order to understand and interpret the verbal communication. To produce an effective and meaningful message, the body needs to support the words.For example, when negotiator is trying to convince his counterpart that what he are saying is true, the negotiator has to look like what he is saying is true. The more empathy that the counterpart has for the negotiators non-verbal communication, the better the counterpart can receive the verbal communication. On the other hand, incongruence between the verbal and non-verbal introduces room for doubt, stirring up distrust. Poor body language not only affects the strength and clarity of the communication but also the negotiators credibility. Hence, body language truly assist negotiator in the negotiation process. Body Language free essay sample Whether realized or not, it is obvious that wherever the concept of language occurs, the concept of culture occurs. That is mainly because language is deeply embedded in culture. is innate and how much is culturally defined? Are there any true universal nonverbal cues or just universal tendencies modified to suit cultural ideals and constraints? It is my proposal that of all forms of nonverbal communication the most universal is the communication of emotions through facial expression. Other channels of nonverbal communication are also of great importance in many cultures. However which channels are emphasized, what cues are considered acceptable and the symbolic meaning of the cues may vary chicken soup for the soul Anthropology may be dissected into four main perspectives, firstly physical or biological anthropology, which is an area of study concerned with human evolution and human adaptation. Its main components are from culture to culture. Ekman and Friesen (1969 ;and discussed in Ekman and Keltner, 1997) undertook an important cross-cultural study to determine how easily and accurately people from various literate Western and non-Western cultures could identify the appropriate emotion term to match photographs they were shown. We will write a custom essay sample on Body Language or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The photographs were of Caucasian faces posed in certain facial expressions. The terms the subjects were given to choose from were happiness, surprise, disgust, contempt, anger, fear and sadness. The result was consistent Anthropology Anthropology may be dissected into four main perspectives, firstly physical or biological anthropology, which is an area of study concerned with human evolution and human adaptation. Its main components are evidence of agreement across all cultures examined. In order to rule out the possibility that exposure to mass-media had taught the subjects to recognize Caucasian facial expressions Ekman and Friesen undertook a similar study among a visually isolated culture in New Guinea (Ekman, 1972). A different methodology was used ;people were shown the photographs of posed Caucasian facial expressions and were asked to make up a story about the person and the moments leading up to that image. From these Chicken Soup For The Soul Anthropology may be dissected into four main perspectives, firstly physical or biological anthropology, which is an area of study concerned with human evolution and human adaptation. Its main components are stories Ekman and Friesen concluded that these subjects were able to identify the emotions accurately. The one exception was that there seemed to be some confusion between surprise and fear expressions. Similar research was undertaken by Heider and Rosch (reported in Ekman, 1972) with the intent of disproving Ekman and Friesen. However, the data gathered also supported Ekman and Friesen’s conclusions. A similar experiment (Argyle, 1975) compared the perception of the emotions of English, Italian and Japanese performers Anthropology Anthropology may be dissected into four main perspectives, firstly physical or biological anthropology, which is an area of study concerned with human evolution and human adaptation. Its main components are by subjects from these three countries. The results (reported in Argyle, 1975) were as follows: Both the English and Italian subjects could identify their own and each others emotions but had difficulty with the Japanese. The Japanese subjects were able to identify the emotions of the English and Italians better than those groups had been able to judge the Japanese. However the Japanese subjects had difficulty determining Japanese facial expressions. This would seem to indicate that the Japanese face Eating Disorders During any given day, the American society is inundated by our perception of the ideal woman. The ideal of a slim and slender body bombards young women on television, does not express emotion in the same manner as those of other cultures. However, another experiment (Ekman and Keltner, 1997) demonstrated different results. American and Japanese subjects were observed while watching films designed to evoke fear and disgust. During part of this observation the subjects were videotaped while watching the film alone. It was presumed that during this time no social rules would restrict the subject’s display of emotion. No difference existed between the American and the Japanese subjects in Culture Vs. Race Anthropologists have always had their discrepancies with the word culture and its background significance. There have been numerous definitions that have filtered through the field, yet not one that everyone the display of emotion when alone. When watching the film with an authority figure (the researcher) present the Japanese were more likely than the Americans to hide negative emotions with a smile. Observation of children who were born deaf and blind show that they make the same emotional expressions (Ekman and Keltner, 1997). There is no way that these children could have learned this behaviour through sensory input. Similarly, a study involving sighted babies under six months of age Philosophy of Man I: Perception Philosophy of Man I: Perception Linguistic ability affects man in his specifically animal operations. Discuss with reference to any one of the senses. has showed that they react with fear to negative faces (Segerstrale and Molnar, 1997). These infants were too young to have learned which faces had negative connotations. It would have to be an innate response. Although different cultures define when and where it is acceptable to display certain emotions (i. e. crying at a funeral may or may not be expected) and the stimulus that triggers a certain emotion may vary from culture to culture, the facial expression of emotions seems Time and Culture In The Dance of Life: The Other Dimension of Time (Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1983), anthropologist Edward T. Hall entitles his first chapter Time as Culture. An extreme stance perhaps, especially given to be a universal. There may be an evolutionary advantage to this form of communication. When people are communicating they tend to mimic the faces one another make. It has been shown that making a face associated with an emotional response actually causes the person to feel that emotion (Ekman, 1977). This shared empathy would have aided in facilitating group harmony and communic ating states of mind. While facial expressions may be universal (although subject to cultural rules) the use of Time And Culture In The Dance of Life: The Other Dimension of Time (Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1983), anthropologist Edward T. Hall entitles his first chapter Time as Culture. An extreme stance perhaps, especially given the rest of the body as a communicative tool is widely varied from culture to culture. Although there seem to be some universal tendencies (Morain, 1978) Birdwhistell’s comment that â€Å"there are probably no universal symbols of emotional state† ;seems to be true (1970). Although the body is an important channel of communication in every culture the information that the body conveys and the manner in which it conveys it varies greatly. This is illustrated in the contrast between Japanese and Time And Culture In The Dance of Life: The Other Dimension of Time ;Anthropologist Edward T. Hall entitles his first chapter Time as Culture. ;An extreme stance perhaps, especially given the potency Arab nonverbal communication styles. Japanese conversation involves a great deal of ritual and prescribed answers. Much of the information in an encounter is transmitted on nonverbal channels. It is important to the Japanese that emotions not be shown in public. This applies to both negative (sorrow, anger) and positive (joy) emotions, although more strongly to negative emotions. A poker face is considered ideal in public, in private a faint smile is acceptable. In most situations sorrow or displeasure cultural protectionism Essay #1 Ramya Mehul MCOM 250 The fine line that used to separate human beings from animals was the phenomenon of speech and imagination. But the great divide must not be shown, it is preferable to mask negative feelings with a smile than display them (Morisaki and Gudykunst, 1994). The Japanese do not look one another

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Hasbro in Brazil Essays

Hasbro in Brazil Essays Hasbro in Brazil Essay Hasbro in Brazil Essay With 41. 9% of Hasbro sales revenue being generated internationally, it is essential that they work to maintain positive relationships with countries throughout the world. The international arena is becoming increasingly important to their revenues. Brazil is one of several international markets that Hasbro has expanded into over the last 5 – 10 years. Not only are they shipping products to Brazil, but in around 2007 they also opened an office in Brazil. Even with this being the case, Brazil has taken governmental measures to promote and strengthen the national traditional toys and games industry and stimulate further local production. In 2010, Brazil approved the reduction of import taxes from 20% to 2% on components to produce traditional toys and games such as electronic mechanisms and later the government increased import taxes on manufactured products from 20% to 35% to inhibit further imports, mainly from China (Toys and Games in Brazil, 2011). In a bid to remain competitive and increase market share, seven large domestic companies considered the possibility of merging to form the largest toys and game manufacturer in Brazil. While the project is still under consideration despite the challenges involved merging seven companies, three other companies, Baby Brink, Rosita and Acalanto, merged in April 2010 to create the group BBRA† (Toys and Games in Brazil, 2011). With measures such as these in place, it causes a disfavor t o companies such as Hasbro. : It requires them has to work twice as hard to gain acceptance in a country that is promoting growth for their national companies. Hasbro identified one opportunity for the locals of Brazil to view them in a light other than one of an â€Å"outsider. † In 2011, Hasbro partnered with Operation Smile Create Smiles to provide free medical treatment and toys and games for children born with cleft palate. â€Å"The medical mission in Brazil was made possible because of Hasbro. Our patients and families in Brazil are incredibly warm and vibrant, and yet the laughter and smiles of these children were hidden behind their clefts. Today, their futures are full of hope and opportunity, and they will always remember that Hasbro helped make that happen†, said Dr. Bill Magee, Co-Founder and Executive Chairman of Operation Smile (Kraft, Jessica, 2011). By taking steps to increase their social responsibility in Brazil, Hasbro is promoting themselves in a way that will allow them to gain an increased acceptance rating and hopefully, not only make 100 children’s smiles brighter but also their bottom line.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Position paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 4

Position paper - Essay Example The existing lease accounting model is inconsistent in nature. Leasing is regarded as the most preferred financing option for the entities or the organizations. The leasing technique adopted in accordance with the existing technique in the past has caused various problems and differences in presentation of the financial statement of the entity. Therefore in order to overcome the limitations of the accounting standard in relation to the leasing, new proposed International Accounting Standard is formulated or introduced. According to the International Accounting Standard 17lease will not distinguish between the operating and the financial leases. The limitations or the challenges faced by the company in applying the accounting standard as per the International Accounting Standard and the FASB affected large number of companies or the industries entering into the lease agreement. In response to the criticism faced by the organization or entity for recognizing the operating and financial lease on the balance sheet of the concerned organization or entity, the standards are revised. The existing standard failed to meet the needs and requirement of the users of the financial statement. It fails to provide a faithful representation of the financial and operating leasing transactions. In order to overcome and face the criticisms the Standards in 2006 initiated a joint project for improvement and development of the financial reporting on the leasing activities of the organization under the International Accounting Standard Board and the US GAAP (Walton, 2011). The boards have decided to improve the approach for recognizing the asset and liabilities and the obligations created by the lease activities of the entity. The main objective of improvement or introducing revised accounting standard is that the company must be able to recognize the asset and liabilities arising from a lease. This initiative will